حقوق زنان

تبعیض و خشونت علیه زنان در سراسر جهان مصیبتی پابرجاست. تبعیض در کشورهای بسیاری در قانون جای دارد: قوانین کیفری، قوانین ازدواج، ارث و مالکیت. حتا در کشورهایی که زنان برابری قانونی را به دست آورده‌اند، تبعیض در عمل ادامه دارد. نسبت حضور زنان در پُست‌های تصمیم‏گیری بسیار کم است. خشونت علیه زنان اغلب به‌خاطر قوانین ناکافی، موانع بر سر راه دستیابی به عدالت و بی‌عملی مسؤولان دولتی که این خشونت را تحمل می‌کنند، رخ می‌دهد. نبودِ مجازات‌های کافی به فضای معافیت از مجازات کمک می‌کند و این فضا در تکرار این جرایم نقش دارد. با وجود این، زنان تنها قربانی نیستند. زنان در همه جا عاملان اصلی مبارزه در راه رهایی هستند.

در این زمینه، فدراسیون بین‌المللی جامعه‌های حقوق بشر محافظت از حقوق زنان و ترویج آن را اولویت خود قرار داده است. فدراسیون به کمک سازمان‌های عضو و همکار خود:

  • نقض حقوق زنان را ثبت می‌کند؛
  • الغای قوانین تبعیض‏آمیز و تصویب قوانین محافظ زنان از تبعیض و خشونت را تبلیغ می‌کند؛
  • راه‌کارهای منطقه‌ای و بین‌المللی محافظت از حقوق زنان را فعال می‌سازد؛
  • از قربانیان خشونت جنسی حمایت و وکالت آنها را در دادرسی‌های قانونی به عهده می‌گیرد.
  • تبعیض در قانون و عمل

    The struggle against misogyny and patriarchy - which continue to dominate all regions of the world - necessitates the elimination of discrimination and the guarantee of equal rights between men and women in law and practice. FIDH advocates for the ratification without reservation of international and regional women’s rights protection instruments (the CEDAW Convention and its Optional Protocol, the African regional Maputo Protocol...) and for their effective implementation. In collaboration with national members and partners, FIDH calls on states to reform legislation in accordance with these instruments.
    FIDH has participated in the launch of two major regional campaigns aimed at fighting discrimination against women:
    - The campaign "Equality without reservation", initiated in 2006, unites women’s rights and human rights NGOs in Arab countries to bring about the withdrawal of reservations to CEDAW. The campaign has contributed to the withdrawal of reservations by Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia, opening the way for reform of national discriminatory laws.
    - The campaign "Africa for Women’s Rights", launched in 2009, led by more than 100 NGOs across the continent, calls on States to ratify and respect international and regional women’s rights protection instruments in law and practice.

  • حقوق جنسی و بازتولید

    On all continents, repressive legislation criminalising access to abortion remains in force, resulting in serious violations of women’s rights. In many countries, the law imposes an absolute prohibition on abortion. Elsewhere, limited exceptions are permitted, in cases of serious risk to the life or health of the woman, rape, incest or malformation of the foetus. These laws usually contain additional - often costly - procedural restrictions (medical certificate signed by one or several doctors, decision of a court) which prevent women having recourse to abortion in practice, even in the cases allowed by law.
    The consequences are violent and sometimes deadly. In addition to regulating women’s bodies, such laws encourage recourse to clandestine and unsafe abortions. For young girls, carrying a pregnancy to term can have disastrous effects on their bodies and their futures. Most of the countries which refuse to recognise the right to abortion also inflict criminal penalties on women who undergo illegal abortions as well as on the medical personnel who practise such abortions. The United Nations has repeatedly called on states to abolish these repressive laws.
    FIDH documents violations of the rights of women and girls caused by restrictions to access to abortion, to life, health, education and participation in public life, and advocates for the adoption of reforms which respect women’s rights.

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