The Observatory for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders, a partnership of FIDH and the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT), has received new information and requests your urgent intervention in the following situation in Bahrain.
The Observatory has been informed by reliable sources about the deterioration of the medical conditions of Mr. Nabeel Rajab, President of the Bahrain Centre for Human Rights (BCHR) and FIDH Deputy Secretary General, while in police custody and his transfer to the hospital for heart problems.
According to the information received, on June 28, 2016, Mr. Nabeel Rajab was transferred from police custody to the Bahrain Defence Force (BDF) Hospital due to unprecedented heart problems, following 15 days of solitary confinement. On the same day, he was examined by a doctor. Later, Mr. Rajab was transferred back to West Riffa police station. Further medical examination should be conducted in the upcoming days.
It has to be recalled that on June 21, during the last appearance before the Public Prosecutor, Mr. Nabeel Rajab complained about severe pain related to gallstones and skin infections. He stated that, earlier in the morning, he had been examined by a doctor of the BDF Hospital who confirmed the need to remove his gallstones. Nonetheless, Mr. Rajab was denied a copy of the medical report. He also reported that he had been held in solitary confinement in a dirty cell.
Moreover, on June 26, the authorities notified Mr. Rajab that his first court hearing in another case was set for July 12, 2016. This is a separate case over two charges related to statements he made on Twitter in 2015 about conditions of detention in Jaw prison and the war in Yemen. He faces up to more than 10 years of prison if convicted in that case, for which he has been already detained from April 2 to July 13, 2015.
Mr. Rajab finds himself in extremely poor detention conditions while in solitary confinement at West Riffa police station. The living conditions in his cell are extremely unsanitary, as the toilet and shower are unclean and unhygienic, with insufficient water. Moreover, cleaning products and other items, such as a radio, provided by his family were not allowed. According to Mr. Rajab’s family he has lost 7kg since his arrest, has developed high blood pressure and has irregular heart beats. His skin has yellowed in colour.
Mr. Rajab is due to appear in court later today to hear whether his detention in police custody will be extended.
The Observatory denounces the degrading conditions of detention amounting to ill-treatment imposed on Mr. Nabeel Rajab and his continued arbitrary detention, which seem to be yet another evidence of a long-standing pattern of harassment against him in an attempt to sanction his legitimate human rights activities (see background information).
The Observatory calls upon the Bahraini authorities to immediately and unconditionally release Mr. Nabeel Rajab, and to put an end to any act of harassment against him and in general against all human rights defenders in Bahrain.
Mr. Rajab has faced continuous judicial harassment for his legitimate human rights work since his first arrest in June 2012. On July 9, 2012, Mr. Rajab was sentenced to three months’ imprisonment for allegedly libelling the residents of Al Muharraq via several tweets posted on his twitter account. On August 23, 2012, Mr. Rajab was acquitted by the Higher Appeal Court.
On August 16, 2012, the Lower Criminal Court sentenced Mr. Rajab to three years of imprisonment in relation to three cases related to his participation in peaceful gatherings in favour of fundamental freedoms and democracy. In December 2012, the Appeals Court reduced the sentence to two years of imprisonment. Mr. Nabeel Rajab completed his sentence and was released in May 2014.
On October 1, 2014, Mr. Nabeel Rajab was summoned and remanded in detention by the General Directorate of Anti-Corruption and Economic and Electronic Security of the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) for “insulting a public institution” under Article 216 of the Bahraini Penal Code. The case related to a tweet he published in September 2014, in which he criticised the military institutions for generating extremist ideologies (the “terrorism tweet” case). On November 2, 2014, the Third Lower Criminal Court ordered Mr. Rajab’s release but barred him from leaving the country.
On January 20, 2015, the Third Lower Criminal Court sentenced Mr. Nabeel Rajab to six months’ imprisonment on the charges of “insulting public institutions and the army”, pursuant to Article 216 of the Bahraini Penal Code. 
In 2015, two other sets of criminal charges were brought against Mr. Rajab. On February 26, 2015, Mr. Rajab was summoned for investigations for charges of “inciting hatred towards the regime” in relation to a speech he made in February 2011 during a funeral (the “funeral speech case”). To date, the police investigation is ongoing.
In addition, on April 2, 2015, over twenty police cars surrounded Mr. Rajab’s house and policemen arrested him. Mr. Rajab was then sent to the General Directorate of Anti-Corruption and Economic and Electronic Security to be interrogated and placed in detention in solitary confinement in Isa Town Police Station. On April 3, 2015, Mr. Rajab was interrogated by the CID regarding two new charges brought against him under criminalcase No. 2015/38288. The first charge was “insulting a statutory body” (Article 216 of the Penal Code) referring to the Ministry of Interior in relation to tweets he posted denouncing the torture of detainees at Jaw Prison (the “Jaw torture tweets” case). The second charge was “disseminating false rumours in time of war” (Article 133 of the Penal Code) in relation to tweets he published about the Saudi-Arabia led coalition air strikes in Yemen (the “Yemen tweets” case). If sentenced on the second charge, Mr. Rajab could be facing up to 10 years’ imprisonment. Mr. Rajab refused to sign the police minutes of the investigations. On April 4, 2015, Mr. Rajab was brought before the Public Prosecution. The Prosecution ordered seven days detention pending investigation. On April 5, 2015, security police confiscated all electronics devices belonging to Mr. Rajab and members of his family.
On April 11, 2015, the prosecution ordered an additional fifteen days in detention for Mr. Rajab. On April 26, 2015, the Public Prosecution officially charged Mr. Rajab under Articles 133 and 216. The Public Prosecution subsequently extended his detention for an additional fifteen days. On May 11, the Bahraini High Court extended Mr. Rajab´s preventive detention for 15 days.
On May 14, 2015, the Bahrain Criminal Court of Appeal upheld the six-month prison sentence (the “terrorism tweet” case).
On July 13, 2015, the King of Bahrain Hamad Ben Issa Al-Khalifa ordered through Royal Pardon the release of Mr. Nabeel Rajab for health reasons. Mr. Rajab had already served three of the six months jail sentence. Moreover, on the same date, the Public Prosecution imposed a travel ban against Mr. Rajab in relation to criminal case No. 2015/38288 related to the Jaw torture and Yemen tweets cases.
Mr. Rajab’s lawyers subsequently filed appeals against the travel ban with the investigating prosecutor on September 2, 2015, with the Attorney General on September 16, and with the Office of the Public Prosecution on October 1, 2015. They received no response to such petitions. On December 3, 2015, Mr. Rajab’s lawyers submitted another petition to the Attorney General requesting the lift of the travel ban imposed on Mr. Nabeel Rajab on July 13, 2015. In the written request filed to the Attorney General, Mr. Rajab’s lawyers raised the issue of urgency, as Mr. Rajab’s wife health is continuously deteriorating and needs treatment outside of Bahrain, accompanied by Mr. Rajab. This request has been disregarded.
In the morning of June 13, 2016, police forces reportedly led by the Cybercrime Unit arrested Mr. Nabeel Rajab, after raiding his house and seizing a number of electronic devices.
In the afternoon, Mr. Rajab was able to contact his wife by phone, and reported being detained at East Riffa Police Station. On June 14, he was transferred to the Public Prosecution, which remanded him in custody for seven days, on accusations of “publishing and broadcasting false news that undermine the prestige of the State” under Article 134 of the Penal Code 
On June 21, 2016, Mr. Nabeel Rajab appeared before the Public Prosecution, which remanded him in custody for eight additional days, in spite of a request for immediate release made by his legal counsel.
The Observatory urges the authorities of Bahrain to:
i. Release Mr. Nabeel Rajab immediately and unconditionally, as his detention is arbitrary and its conditions amount to ill-treatment and are endangering his life;
ii. Guarantee the physical and psychological integrity of Mr. Nabeel Rajab and that of all human rights defenders in Bahrain;
iii. Put an end to any act of harassment, including at the judicial level, against Mr. Nabeel Rajab and against all human rights defenders in Bahrain;
iv. Conform in any circumstances with the provisions of the Declaration on Human Rights Defenders, adopted on December 9, 1998 by the United Nations General Assembly, in particular:
its Article 1, which states that “everyone has the right, individually or in association with others, to promote the protection and realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms at the national and international levels” ;
its Article 6 (c) which states that “everyone has the right, individually and in association with others to study, discuss, form and hold opinions on the observance, both in law and in practice, of all human rights and fundamental freedoms and, through these and other appropriate means, to draw public attention to those matters” ;
and its Article 12.2 which states that “the State shall take all necessary measures to ensure the protection by the competent authorities of everyone, individually and in association with others, against any violence, threats, retaliation, de facto or de jure adverse discrimination, pressure or any other arbitrary action as a consequence of his or her legitimate exercise of the rights referred to in the present Declaration”.
v. Ensure in all circumstances respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms in accordance with international human rights standards and international instruments ratified by Bahrain.
• Cheikh Hamad bin Issa AL KHALIFA, King of Bahrain, Fax: +973 176 64 587
• Cheikh Khaled Bin Ahmad AL KHALIFA, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Fax : 00973 17 21 05 75; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
• Cheikh Khalid bin Ali AL KHALIFA, Minister of Justice and Islamic Affairs, Fax: +973 175 31 284
• Lt. Gen. Cheikh Rashed bin Abdulla AL KHALIFA, Minister of Interior, Email: email@example.com
• Permanent Mission of Bahrain to the United Nations in Geneva, Switzerland. Fax: + 41 22 758 96 50. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
• H.E. Ahmed Mohammed Yousif Aldoseri, Ambassador of the Kingdom of Bahrain to the Kingdom of Belgium, Fax: 0032 (0) 26472274; E-mail: Brussels.email@example.com
Please also write to diplomatic representations of Bahrain in your respective countries.